Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a serious and often painful infection of the female reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It’s primarily caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), most commonly chlamydia and gonorrhea. Left untreated, PID can lead to severe, long-term complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. 

What Causes Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

PID is most often the result of an untreated STI. Bacteria from the vagina or cervix travel to the upper reproductive organs, leading to infection and inflammation. Factors increasing the risk of PID include:

  • Having an STI, particularly chlamydia or gonorrhea.
  • Being sexually active and under 25 years old.
  • Having multiple sexual partners or a partner with an STI.
  • Douching regularly, which can upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina.

What are the symptoms of PID?

PID symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include:

  • Lower abdominal pain.
  • Fever and general fatigue.
  • Unusual discharge with a bad odor from the vagina.
  • Painful or difficult urination.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding.

In some cases, women may not exhibit any symptoms, which makes regular STI screening crucial.

Diagnosing PID

PID can be challenging to diagnose because its symptoms often mimic other conditions. A fertility specialist will typically:

  • Review the patient’s medical and sexual history.
  • Perform a physical examination, including a pelvic exam.
  • Order tests, such as a swab of the cervix or vagina, blood tests, or urine tests.

In some cases, an ultrasound or laparoscopy may be conducted for a more accurate diagnosis.

Treatment for PID

Early and effective treatment is vital in preventing long-term complications. Treatment usually includes:

  • Antibiotics: A course of antibiotics is the primary treatment. It’s crucial to complete the entire course, even if symptoms improve.
  • Hospitalization: In severe cases, or if the patient is pregnant, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antibiotic treatment.
  • Partner Treatment: Sexual partners should be tested and treated for STIs to prevent the spread of infection and reinfection.

Complications of PID

If left untreated, PID can lead to severe complications:

  • Infertility: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, leading to infertility.
  • Ectopic unhealthy fallopian tubes from PID can cause a fertilized egg to implant outside the uterus, typically in the fallopian tube.
  • Chronic Pelvic Pain: PID can cause long-term pelvic pain.
  • Abscess Formation: PID can lead to collections of infected fluid (abscesses) in the reproductive organs.

Preventing PID

Prevention is key in addressing PID. Preventative measures include:

  • Safe Sex Practices: Using condoms during sexual activity significantly reduces the risk of STIs.
  • Regular STI Screening: Regular screenings help detect and treat STIs early.
  • Educating Yourself and Others: Understanding the risks and symptoms of PID and spreading awareness can help prevent the disease.
  • Avoid Douching: Douching disrupts the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina, increasing the risk of PID.

Living with PID

Managing PID involves more than just medical treatment. It includes:

  • Understanding the Condition: Educating yourself about PID helps in managing symptoms and preventing complications.
  • Follow-up Care: Regular follow-up appointments are essential to ensure the infection is entirely cleared and to assess any potential long-term effects.
  • Mental Health Support: The emotional impact of PID, especially if it leads to chronic pain or infertility, can be significant. Counseling or support groups can be beneficial.


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is a serious health condition that can have lasting impacts on a woman’s reproductive health. Understanding the risks and symptoms, seeking prompt medical attention if PID is suspected, and adhering to treatment plans are crucial steps in managing this condition. Prevention through safe sex practices and regular health screenings cannot be overstated.

With proper medical care and support, most women recover without long-term complications. It’s also vital to address the emotional aspects of PID, seeking support as needed to navigate this challenging condition. Awareness, education, and proactive healthcare are your strongest allies in the fight against Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

To know more, you can seek help from Fertility Specialist 

Dr Ila Gupta 

(Director & Sr. Consultant at Ferticity IVF & Fertility Clinics).