Surrogacy is a legal agreement or an informal method in which a known or unknown woman willingly carries the child for infertile couples. The pregnant woman has to hand over the baby to the legitimate parents after child birth. She has no legal, parental, financial, or other kinds of rights over the child in the future.
Types Of Surrogacy
There are two distinct types of surrogacy that are legally practised in a large number of countries across the world. They are the traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy procedures.
In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate is inseminated by the intended father’s sperm using natural procedure or artificial insemination treatment. Donor sperm can also be used to inseminate the surrogate, in which case, the intended father has no genetic relationship with the child. The surrogate remains the genetic mother in both cases.
In Gestational surrogacy, IVF treatment is performed for successfully implanting a lab cultured embryo into the surrogate’s womb. The surrogate or the gestational carrier does not have any genetic relationship with the child in this type of surrogacy.
The embryo can be cultured for implantation using any of the following methods-
- Fusing the childless couple’s egg and sperm, so they remain genetic parents of newborn child.
- The intended father’s sperm is injected into a non-surrogate donor’s egg. The surrogate carries the embryo and only the intended father has genetic relationship with the child.
- The intended mother’s egg is fused with donor sperm so she retains genetic relationship with the child.
- A donor embryo is implanted into surrogate’s womb so that none of the three have genetic relationship with the child. This is not allowed in India as per ART Bill.
Suitable People For Surrogacy
The following people can opt for surrogacy treatment for having a child –
- Women who had hysterectomy, but whose ovaries are functioning well.
- Congenitaly malformed or hypo plastic uterus.
- Women having medical problem, whose life is susceptible to risk if they go through pregnancy and childbirth.
- Couples whose IVF treatment cycles have repeatedly failed.
- Women undergoing cancer treatment
- Any other uterine dysfunction.
Surrogate is arranged by registered ART agency . She is investigated thoroughly to rule out medical problems. Legal contract is signed by both the parties. Carrier’s expenses, from doctor visits to housing, along with additional legal, agency, and service fees, Medical and treatment fees is beared by the patient as per the signed contract.